About Nehru In Hindi Language UPD
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As the day of switching over to Hindi as sole official language approached (26 January 1965), the anti-Hindi movement gained momentum in Madras with increased support from college students. On 25 January, a full-scale riot broke out in the southern city of Madurai, sparked off by a minor altercation between agitating students and Congress party members. The riots spread all over Madras, continued unabated for the next two months, and were marked by violence, arson, looting, police firing and lathi charges. The Congress government of Madras, called in paramilitary forces to quell the agitation; their involvement resulted in the deaths of about 70 (by official estimates) including two policemen. To calm the situation, Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri gave assurances that English would continue to be used as the official language as long as the non-Hindi speaking states wanted. The riots subsided after Shastri's assurance, as did the student agitation.
The anti-Hindi imposition activists from Madras State were not satisfied with the 1967 Amendment, as it did not address their concerns about the three language formula. However, with DMK in power, they hesitated to restart the agitation. The Tamil Nadu Students' Anti-Hindi Agitation council split into several factions. The moderate factions favored letting Annadurai and the government to deal with the situation. The extremist factions restarted the agitations. They demanded scrapping of the three language formula and an end to teaching of Hindi, abolishing the use of Hindi commands in the National Cadet Corps (NCC), banning of Hindi films and songs and closure of the Dakshina Bharat Hindi Prachara Sabha (Institution for Propagation of Hindi in South India).
In 2014, the Home Ministry ordered that \"government employees and officials of all ministries, departments, corporations or banks, who have made official accounts on social networking sites should use Hindi, or both Hindi and English but give priority to Hindi\". This move was immediately opposed by all the political parties in Tamil Nadu. Terming the move on use of Hindi as being \"against letter and spirit\" of the Official Languages Act the Tamil Nadu Chief Minister Jayalalithaa cautioned that this direction may \"cause disquiet to the people of Tamil Nadu who are very proud of and passionate about their linguistic heritage\", and asked the prime minister to suitably modify the instructions to ensure that English was the language of communication on social media. The major opposition party Indian National Congress advised prudence, expressing fear that such directions may result in a backlash in non-Hindi states, especially Tamil Nadu and also said that the \"Government would be well-advised to proceed with caution\". These protests ensured the continuous official usage of English.
The anti-Hindi imposition agitations ensured the passage of the Official Languages Act of 1963 and its amendment in 1967, thus ensuring the continued use of English as an official language of India. They effectively brought about the \"virtual indefinite policy of bilingualism\" of the Indian Republic.
Without the use of Sanskrit, it is impossible to express complex thoughts or write literature in any of the Indian languages. Just when Hindi was about to take its place as a language of administration, economics, and sciences, its Sanskritic roots were cut.
The government, which is in power, must be sensitive to the fears, anxieties, and apprehensions of non-Hindi speakers. It should be realistic about what constitutes unity and integrity in India, rather than adopting any sentimental approach towards any particular language.
Looking at the complete picture of the Hindi language in India, about 520 million people consider Hindi as their mother tongue. The Bengali language is the second largest spoken language with 97 million speakers.
The Indian English Novel:Kim and Midnight's Children Richard Cronin (bio) \"Is this an Indian disease, this urge to encapsulate the whole of reality\" (75), asks Salman Rushdie in Midnight's Children. The answer is, I think, yes, but it is a disease to which only those like Rushdie, who write about India in English, are vulnerable. To write about India in any of its vernaculars, even in Hindi its national language, is inevitably to divide it. Rushdie knows as much. In 1956 Nehru divided India into six states: \"But the boundaries of these states were not formed by rivers or mountains, or any natural features of the landscape. Language divided us . . .\" (186). Writing in Gujarati, or Tamil, or Bengali confers on the writer a regional identity that unavoidably takes precedence over his identity as an Indian. That is why the Indian novel, the novel that tries to encapsulate the whole of Indian reality can, as yet, be written only in English. And this is odd, because English is the first language only of the smallest of India's racial groups, the Anglo-Indians, and of the tiniest of its classes, the few thousand middle and upper class families who speak English in their homes and educate their children abroad or in India's English-style public schools.1 153554b96e