The effective refractive index, neff, measured by THz-TDS as a function of the (a) disintegration time and (b) the amount of API dissolved after 15 min. The measurement was performed in transmission as schematically illustrated in Fig. 5. Samples of 18 batches of biconvex tablets from a production-scale design of experiments study into exploring the design space of a commercial tablet manufacturing process were used (modified from ).
Quantitative analysis of tablet disintegration by MRI. (a) shows the MRI data, which is binarised using a threshold image intensity. Subsequently the edges are detected as depicted in (b), which is used for the calculation of the fractal dimension. This procedure was applied on MRI measurements of tablets with different disintegrants and analysed as a function of time as depicted in (c). SSG I: sodium starch glycolate (Explotab); SSG II: sodium starch glycolate (Primojel); PP I: polacrilin potassiumPolacrilin potassium (Amberlite IRP88); PP II: polacrilin potassium (Kyron T-314); XPVP: crospovidone (Polyplasdone XL), CCS: croscarmellose sodium (Ac-Di-Sol); DCP: dibasic calcium phosphateDibasic calcium phosphate (Di-Cafos C92-14) (modified from ).
Schematic of the experimental setup for the in-situ monitoring of the disintegration process by TPI and the deconvolved time-domain terahertz waveforms (each line is offset by 0.01 a.u.). The terahertz waveforms shows the hydration of a pharmaceutical tablet consisting of 44% lactose anhydrous (Tablettose 100, Meggle, Wasserburg, Germany), 30% MCC (PH102, FMC Biopolymers, Philadelphia, USA), 20% paracetamol, 5% CCS, 1% magnesium stearate (MgSt) with 10% porosity.
Context: Tablet disintegration is an important factor for drug release and can be modified with excipients called tablet disintegrants. Tablet disintegrants act via different mechanisms and the efficacy of these excipients is influenced by various factors.
Objective: In this review, the existing literature on tablet disintegration is critically reviewed. Potential disintegration mechanisms, as well as impact factors on the disintegration process will be discussed based on experimental evidence.
Methods: Search terms for Scopus and Web of Science included \"tablet disintegration\", \"mechanism tablet disintegration\", \"superdisintegrants\", \"disintegrants\", \"swelling force\", \"disintegration force\", \"disintegration mechanisms\", as well as brand names of commonly applied superdisintegrants. References of identified papers were screened as well.
Results: Experimental data supports swelling and shape recovery as main mechanisms of action of disintegrants. Other tablet excipients and different manufacturing techniques greatly influence the disintegration process.
None of these possibilities is particularly welcome to the many physicians who saw in health care integration a way to escape the business of medicine. No sooner than many doctors had begun to get used to a new practice style that is characteristic of integrated organizations, the market entered into what some call the age of disintegration.
If you can't heal the relationship and find that you need to take back your medical practice, you'll have to create some good new days instead. Physicians facing disintegration have several options, including these:
To determine what option would be best for your practice, you will need to approach disintegration as you would any major, new undertaking: with an effective due-diligence process. This may seem strange, particularly if you're planning to take back a practice you once managed. But keep in mind that the work of restructuring an integrated entity, or of dismantling it and starting the practice over independently, is as new and challenging as the original integration effort. Remember that the practice changed during the course of being integrated and that the infrastructure that is in place may not serve the medical group's needs once it becomes independent or enters into a different kind of integrated relationship.
This annex is the result of the Q4B process for Disintegration Test General Chapter. The proposed texts were submitted by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group. It aims to facilitate the recognition of pharmacopoeial procedures for the disintegration test by regulatory authorities in the ICH regions. It describes special requirements for this test to be considered interchangable for use in the ICH regions.
With the previous discovery of an active asteroid spouting six tails, named P/2013 P5, astronomers are finding more evidence the pressure of sunlight may be the primary force causing the disintegration of small asteroids -- less than a mile across-- in our solar system.
The expressions feelings of disintegration and disintegration anxieties refer to a feeling of extreme anxiety that the personality is \"falling to pieces\" or disintegrating into elements that are no longer connected together. This serious form of depersonalization has been described in the psychoses, particularly schizophrenia. It has been mainly evoked, however, with regard to the earliest stages of the infant's development and their consequences.
In episode 2, Chris talked about her presentation at the 2021 NAGC Conference on distinguishing science from pseudoscience. Emma and Chris went over the forms and expressions of overexcitability, the connection between OE and positive disintegration, and also discussed some of the myths and misunderstandings about OEs that are found in the gifted community.
Becquerel is a unit used to quantify radiation intensity. One becquerel is defined as an amount that \"one nucleus changes (disintegrates) per second.\" Since nuclei often emit radiation during disintegration, the becquerel is used as a unit to express the ability to emit radiation. In a rock with 1 Bq of radioactivity, for example, each nucleus of the radionuclide contained in the rock will disintegrate per second. 10 Bq means that 10 nuclei will disintegrate per second.
Once nuclei of a radionuclide disintegrate and the radionuclide becomes stable by emitting radiation, it will no longer emit radiation. Some types of radionuclides repeat disintegration multiple times until becoming stable.
This book accounts for whether and how the path of the European Union (EU) has developed towards potential disintegration. These questions have become particularly relevant since the outbreak of the debt crises in the Eurozone and the Brexit referendum. The author critically subverts theories of European integration and analyses the rise and fall of federations, empires and states in a comparative perspective. The most promising theory presented here indicates that Brexit is not likely to be followed by other member states leaving the EU. Nevertheless, the EU has been undermined from within as it cannot adequately address Eurosceptic dissatisfaction from both the left and right. This book is an essential read for everyone interested in the EU and its future.
Hans Vollaard is Lecturer in Dutch and European Politics at Utrecht University, the Netherlands. He has recently published on European disintegration, the Netherlands in the EU, European regulation of cross-border healthcare, and local democracy.
Using data collected by the International Institute of Agriculture, we document the disintegration of international commodity markets between 1913 and 1938. There was dramatic disintegration during World War I, gradual reintegration during the 1920s, and then a very substantial disintegration after 1929. The period saw the unravelling of a great many of the integration gains of the 1870-1913 period. While increased transport costs certainly help to explain the wartime disintegration, they cannot explain the post-1929 increase in trade costs. Protectionism seems the most likely alternative candidate.
William Hynes & David S. Jacks & Kevin H. O'rourke, 2012. \"Commodity market disintegration in the interwar period,\" European Review of Economic History, Oxford University Press, vol. 16(2), pages 119-143, May. citation courtesy of 59ce067264