Kerbal Space Program is a game about a green humanoid species known as the Kerbals as they start a space program. Superficially similar to Orbiter, the difference between the two has been likened to the difference between making to-scale miniatures for architectural design and playing with LEGO bricks with rocket fuel in them, which you then hurl with glee at your sisternote Although the Real Solar System and Realism Overhaul mods let you be more like the former.
In 1961, the US was still feeling mortified by the Soviet Union blindsiding them with the launch of Sputnik. The Soviets then threw a bucket of gasoline on the bonfires of US humiliation when they made Yuri Gagarin the first man in space. This made President Kennedy do an abrupt about face from his plans to cancel the Apollo program due to the cost. Suddenly that would send exactly the wrong signal to the world in general and to US voters in specific. Kennedy could smell the rising humiliation and fear from his constituents.
Orion's programmatic problems are mostly due to the fact that there is no immediate \"requirement\" for a spacecraft with such a huge thrust and delta-V capacity. So the budgets are limited. The report is of the opinion that if Orion spacecraft are made available, rocket scientists will be falling over each other to take advantage of the oodles of delta-V and thrust they provide.
In March of 1965 the Orion program was pretty much over. Nobody was interested in a spacecraft powered by hundreds of atom bombs. In a frantic attempt to keep it alive, General Atomic released a report describing several potential military applications. Hey, Pentagon, here are some great serving suggestions for an Orion! Please don't let the program die.
Subsequently, an example is presented that is indicative of the high,geo-competitive transportation economy attainable with nuclear-pulse freighters(NPF). These NPF are large, with payload capacities in the multi-thousand tonrange. Assume a relatively small NPF, capable of delivering a discretionarypayload of 3000 tons from a lunar-type environment to Earth. Its dry weight isabout 1000 tons. It will be propelled by nuclear pulse units (NPU) of 0.3 to about0.6 kiloton (kt) yield, depending somewhat on its mission. The cost of an NPUdecreases with its size, in contrast to that of a chemical high-explosive, which isabout 2.410-14$/erg, or $1,000,000 (1972 dollars) per kt (= 4.2361019 erg). By extrapolation ofpublicly  given data, it was assumed that 20 years from now the cost of a 1 ktNPU could be reduced by a factor of 2 to 4 to a value of 2.1015$/erg and the cost ofan 0.1 kt NPU to 10-14$/erg. Therewith, the cost of the NPUs driving the abovespecified NPF would lie above 2.10-15 and below 10-14$/erg. In this example,however, we have assumed 10-14$/erg. Thus, if 10 NPUs@0.3 kt are expended, theresulting cost is higher, namely, the equivalent of 30 NPUs@ 0.1 kt. This amountsto 1.2711020erg at 10-14$/erg or $1.271106 per 3 kt, i.e. $424,000 per kt. Anuclear pulse engine design  was assumed that permits the use of an expellantcombination (e.g. lithium, steel and ammonia) whose production costs arenegligible compared to the cost of the nuclear fuel (the NPUs) and to thetransportation costs from manufacturing place of the expellants (probably Earthin the case of the above expellant composition). In the transportation sector, thebiggest allowance was made for future advances by assuming a transportationcost of NPUs and expellant to the NPF of $20,000 per ton ($9 per pound). Withthe Space Shuttle presently under development by NASA at North AmericanRockwell, the transportation costs, though greatly reduced compared toexpendable boosters, would still be slightly below $400,000 per ton (based ondelivery of 50,000 lb to about 130 n.mi. orbit@ $180 per lb). The above low cost isbased on a large reusable Earth-to-orbit shuttle of 3000 ton payload capability aspart of a macro-space-transportation system that could be available 30 years fromgo-ahead of an extraterrestrial industrialization program .
The development of a low enriched, nuclear thermalrocket (NTR) has become a necessity for more effectivedeep space travel. An NTR provides a significantly higherspecific impulse (Isp) than chemical rockets. Starting inthe 1960s the United States began the Nuclear Engine forRocket Vehicle Applications (NERVA) program. Theoverall design of the NTR described in this paper,INsTAR, incorporates many elements from the NERVAprototypes. While many NERVA engines incorporated ahigh enriched uranium fuel, the low enriched uraniumfuel concepts have proven to be feasible. The overalldesign objective was to develop a full core design for anNTR that addresses the problems found in the SpaceNuclear Thermal Propulsion Project core and improvesupon the Isp and thrust to weight ratio observed during theproject. The core design is characterized with respect toneutronics, thermal hydraulics, and propulsiveperformance. A critical component of the design was thestudy of materials utilized in the core and theircompatibilities at high operating temperatures.
Nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) is a leading, inspacedesign to reduce travel time for astronauts and carrylarger payloads than contemporary chemical rockets.Efforts to develop nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) beganin the 1960s. One such effort, the Nuclear Engine forRocket Vehicle Applications (NERVA), was a nuclearthermal rocket engine development program that ended in1972 (Ref. 1). An example of a rocket engine developedby the NERVA program is seen in Fig. 1. NERVAultimately demonstrated that NTRs were a feasibletechnology for space exploration. One of the enginedesigns during this time met all requirements for amission to Mars. Since then, it has been determined thatNTRs are essential for regular trips to Mars and humanexploration of further planets. Approximately twentyexperiments of different types of nuclear reactors forspace applications were completed.1
The coolant and propellant used in the PBR design isliquid hydrogen. Liquid hydrogen has the lowestmolecular weight of all substances, leading to a higherspecific impulse than other propellants. It is cryogenicand therefore should be handled with extreme care andstored below 423 F. Shielding and insulation are requiredto keep the propellant from evaporating or boiling. Theshielding will protect the propellant from the radiant heatof the sun and the insulation will provide protection fromother sources of heat like air friction during the flightthrough the atmosphere.4 Liquid hydrogen is the signaturefuel used by the American space program and works wellwith the proposed NTR design, INsTAR.
the chain nuclear fissionreaction is carried out in a deep vacuum, and high-energy products ofnuclear reactions may therefore leave the active zone (AZ) and the enginenozzle with practically no loss of its kinetic energy at the speed of about10,000 km/s and create a jet thrust; the proposed engine is much less loadedby its thermal mode than modern NJPE because less than 5% of the nuclearenergy released remains in its AZ whereas in present-day NJPE virtually all100 percent remains in the AZ. Its power may therefore reach tens andhundreds of GWts.nuclear fuel for engineoperation, except for the time needed for bringing all its systems to fullcapacity, will be produced aboard the spacecraft from natural uranium. Thus,a certain quantity of safe compact metallic uranium will be in the missileinstead of massive and explosion- hazardous fuel tanks.the NJPE will operate duringthe time of the entire flight, ensuring practical elimination ofweightlessness and the maintenance of comfortable conditions for astronauts,while the average flight speed may reach up to 1000 km/s.since fission products leavethe engine nozzle at a high speed, the radiation background when the engineis in operation both in the vicinity of the spacecraft and in interplanetaryspace will not increase because these products will escape the limits of theSolar system in less than 10 days.potential of the engineallows in principle for bringing an interplanetary spacecraft to any planetof the Solar system in less than 20 days or for boasting an interstellarprobe at 1/2 light speed.Since the design is a fundamentaldevelopment, it requires considerable capital and human resources and is not ofcommercial interest at present, its implementation may require an internationalprogram.
Ksp Dv Cheat SheetKsp Phase Angle CalculatorSee Full List On Wiki.kerbalspaceprogram.comKsp Cheat KeyThis is a list of the default key bindings of the standard game.Please note that PlayStation 4 and Xbox One bindings have not been included as of yet for either the Enhanced Edition or the original port! (the Enhanced Edition pause menu does have a list of controls)
Im Jahr 2018 gab es eine starke Kontroverse bzgl. der Verwendung von Red Shell. was auch in KSP eingebaut war.Heise Artikel zu Red Shell: -Shell-Gamer-bemaengeln-Spyware-in-Steam-Titeln-4089021.htmlAuf Reddit gibt es eine gute Zusammenfassung zu dem Thema: _eula_privacy_policy_and_red_shell_a_rational/Letztendlich wurde Red Shell laut den Release-Notes mit Update 1.4.4 entfernt: -kerbal-space-program-144-and-making-history-13-launching-today/Laut dem Hersteller bleibt nur noch das Tracking und die Analytics der Unity Engine enthalten: -ksp-analytics-and-terms-clarity/Welche Daten von der Unity Engine erfasst werden kann man u.a. hier nachlesen: -policy 153554b96e