The kernel version number as given on the linux16 /vmlinuz-kernel_version line must match the version number of the initramfs image given on the initrd /initramfs-kernel_version.img line of each menuentry block. For more information on how to verify the initial RAM disk image, see see Red Hat Enterprise 7 Kernel Administration Guide.
In menuentry blocks, the initrd directive must point to the location (relative to the /boot/ directory if it is on a separate partition) of the initramfs file corresponding to the same kernel version. This directive is called initrd because the previous tool which created initial RAM disk images, mkinitrd, created what were known as initrd files. The grub.cfg directive remains initrd to maintain compatibility with other tools. The file-naming convention of systems using the dracut utility to create the initial RAM disk image is initramfs-kernel_version.img.
FreeBSD features the growfs(8) command, which makes it possible to increase the size of file system on the fly, removing this limitation.A file system can only be expanded into free space in the partition in which it resides.If there is space after the partition, the partition can be expanded with gpart(8).If the partition is the last one on a virtual disk, and the disk is expanded, the partition can then be expanded.
File systems are contained in partitions.Disks are divided into partitions using one of several partitioning schemes;see [bsdinstall-part-manual].The newer scheme is GPT; older BIOS-based computers use MBR.GPT supports division of a disk into partitions with a size, offset, and type.It supports a large number of partitions and partition types, and is recommended whenever its use is possible.GPT partitions use the disk name with a suffix, where the suffix is p1 for the first partition, p2 for the second, and so on.MBR, however, supports only a small number of partitions.The MBR partitions are known in FreeBSD as slices.Slices may be used for different operating systems.FreeBSD slices are subdivided into partitions using BSD labels (see bsdlabel(8)).
Slice numbers follow the device name, prefixed with an s, starting at 1.So \"da0s1\" is the first slice on the first SCSI drive.There can only be four physical slices on a disk, but there can be logical slices inside physical slices of the appropriate type.These extended slices are numbered starting at 5, so \"ada0s5\" is the first extended slice on the first SATA disk.These devices are used by file systems that expect to occupy a slice.
Slices and \"dangerously dedicated\" physical drives contain BSD partitions, which are represented as letters from a to h.This letter is appended to the device name, so \"da0a\" is the a partition on the first da drive, which is \"dangerously dedicated\".\"ada1s3e\" is the fifth partition in the third slice of the second SATA disk drive.
Finally, each disk on the system is identified.A disk name starts with a code that indicates the type of disk, and then a number, indicating which disk it is.Unlike partitions and slices, disk numbering starts at 0.Common codes are listed in Disk Device Names.
When referring to a partition in a slice, include the disk name, s, the slice number, and then the partition letter.Examples are shown in Sample Disk, Slice, and Partition Names.GPT partitions include the disk name, p, and then the partition number.
When installing FreeBSD, configure the disk slices if using MBR, and create partitions within the slice to be used for FreeBSD.If using GPT, configure partitions for each file system.In either case, create a file system or swap space in each partition, and decide where each file system will be mounted.See gpart(8) for information on manipulating partitions.
When make-serial-number-generator is called, it creates a localenvironment with a binding for current-serial-number whoseinitial value is 0, then, within this environment, creates a procedure.The local environment is stored within the created procedure object andso persists for the lifetime of the created procedure.
Note that make-serial-number-generator can be called again tocreate a second serial number generator that is independent of thefirst. Every new invocation of make-serial-number-generatorcreates a new local let environment and returns a new procedureobject with an association to this environment. 153554b96e