Enhancements in Windows Server 2008 R2 include new functionality for Active Directory, new virtualization and management features, version 7.5 of the Internet Information Services web server and support for up to 256 logical processors. It is built on the same kernel used with the client-oriented Windows 7, and is the first server operating system released by Microsoft to exclusively support 64-bit processors, a move which was followed by the consumer-oriented Windows 11 in 2021. Windows Server 2008 R2 is also the last version of Windows to support Itanium processors; its successor, Windows Server 2012, supports x64 processors only.
Seven editions of Windows Server 2008 R2 were released: Foundation, Standard, Enterprise, Datacenter, Web, HPC Server and Itanium, as well as Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. A home server variant called Windows Home Server 2011 was also released.
Windows Server 2008 R2 supports up to 64 physical processors or up to 256 logical processors per system. (Only the Datacenter and Itanium editions can take advantage of the capability of 64 physical processors. Enterprise, the next-highest edition after those two, can only use 8.) When deployed in a file server role, new File Classification Infrastructure services allow files to be stored on designated servers in the enterprise based on business naming conventions, relevance to business processes and overall corporate policies.
In Windows Server 2008, the way clusters are qualified changed significantly with the introduction of the cluster validation wizard. The cluster validation wizard is a feature that is integrated into failover clustering in Windows Server 2008. With the cluster validation wizard, an administrator can run a set of focused tests on a collection of servers that are intended to use as nodes in a cluster. This cluster validation process tests the underlying hardware and software directly, and individually, to obtain an accurate assessment of how well failover clustering can be supported on a given configuration.
Hyper-V is hypervisor-based virtualization software, forming a core part of Microsoft's virtualization strategy. It virtualizes servers on an operating system's kernel layer. It can be thought of as partitioning a single physical server into multiple small computational partitions. Hyper-V includes the ability to act as a Xen virtualization hypervisor host allowing Xen-enabled guest operating systems to run virtualized. A beta version of Hyper-V shipped with certain x86-64 editions of Windows Server 2008, prior to Microsoft's release of the final version of Hyper-V on 26 June 2008 as a free download. Also, a standalone variant of Hyper-V exists; this variant supports only x86-64 architecture. While the IA-32 editions of Windows Server 2008 cannot run or install Hyper-V, they can run the MMC snap-in for managing Hyper-V.
Server Manager is a new roles-based management tool for Windows Server 2008. It is a combination of Manage Your Server and Security Configuration Wizard from Windows Server 2003. Server Manager is an improvement of the Configure my server dialog that launches by default on Windows Server 2003 machines. However, rather than serve only as a starting point to configuring new roles, Server Manager gathers together all of the operations users would want to conduct on the server, such as, getting a remote deployment method set up, adding more server roles etc., and provides a consolidated, portal-like view about the status of each role.
Most editions of Windows Server 2008 are available in x86-64 and IA-32 variants. These editions come in two DVDs: One for installing the IA-32 variant and the other for x64. Windows Server 2008 for Itanium-based Systems supports IA-64 processors. The IA-64 variant is optimized for high-workload scenarios like database servers and Line of Business (LOB) applications. As such, it is not optimized for use as a file server or media server. Windows Server 2008 is the last 32-bit Windows server operating system.Editions of Windows Server 2008 include:
A second release of Windows Server 2008 based on Windows 7, Windows Server 2008 R2, was released to manufacturing on July 22, 2009 and became generally available on October 22, 2009. New features added in Windows Server 2008 R2 include new virtualization features, new Active Directory features, Internet Information Services 7.5 and support for up to 256 logical processors. It is the first server operating system by Microsoft to exclusively support 64-bit processors, while consumer-oriented versions of Windows maintained 32-bit support until Windows 11 in 2021.
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\\SOFTWARE\\Wow6432Node\\Microsoft\\DevDiv\\VS\\Servicing\\9.0HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\\SOFTWARE\\Wow6432Node\\Microsoft\\DevDiv\\VS\\Servicing\\9.0\\VSR\\1033and also ensure that the SP and SPIndex values are 1 and that theSPName is SP1, which I had not done! The SP and SPIndex values were 0 and the SPName was RTM. I changes them to 1 and SP1 respectively. Note that it is a bit strange since I had never installed any version of VS 2008 on this machine!I could then install SQL Server 2008 R2 Management Studio with no problem!Note that I installed it from Microsoft Web Platform and that, after updating the above registry keys, I had to close Web Platform and reload it before I could indeed install SQL Server 2008 R2 Management Studio.How did I find these other registry keysWhen first trying to install Management Studio using the SQLManagementStudio_x86_ENU.exeinstaller, I noted the action that was displayed at the time the error message about VS 2008 SP1 got displayed. The action was:Install_trin_aide_Cpu32_Action: CA_BlockOnVSSP0_x86I then googled on CA_BlockOnVSSP0_x86 and found only one site: -server-2008-installation-dependency-problems-with-visual-studio-2008-sp1.aspxwhere I read about those other registry keys.Hope this helps.
Overall summary: Final result: SQL Server installation failed. To continue, investigate the reason for the failure, correct the problem, uninstall SQL Server, and then rerun SQL Server Setup. Exit code (Decimal): -2068054016 Exit facility code: 1212 Exit error code: 0 Exit message: SQL Server installation failed. To continue, investigate the reason for the failure, correct the problem, uninstall SQL Server, and then rerun SQL Server Setup. Start time: 2012-10-23 13:03:21 End time: 2012-10-23 13:05:33 Requested action: Install Log with failure: C:\\Program Files (x86)\\Microsoft SQL Server\\100\\Setup Bootstrap\\Log\\20121023_130205\\trin_aide_Cpu32_1.log Exception help link: =20476&ProdName=Microsoft+SQL+Server&EvtSrc=setup.rll&EvtID=50000&ProdVer=10.50.1600.1Machine Properties: Machine name: PARM-PC Machine processor count: 4 OS version: Windows 7 OS service pack: Service Pack 1 OS region: United States OS language: English (United States) OS architecture: x64 Process architecture: 32 Bit OS clustered: NoProduct features discovered: Product Instance Instance ID Feature Language Edition Version Clustered Sql Server 2008 R2 MSSQLSERVER MSSQL10_50.MSSQLSERVER Database Engine Services 1033 Enterprise Edition 10.51.2500.0 No Package properties: Description: SQL Server Database Services 2008 R2 ProductName: SQL Server 2008 R2 Type: RTM Version: 10 SPLevel: 0 Installation location: C:\\Users\\parm\\Downloads\\SQL Server 2008 R2 Enterprise (x86, x64, ia64) - DVD (English)\\x86\\setup\\ Installation edition: ENTERPRISEUser Input Settings: ACTION: Install ADDCURRENTUSERASSQLADMIN: False AGTSVCACCOUNT: AGTSVCPASSWORD: ***** AGTSVCSTARTUPTYPE: Manual ASBACKUPDIR: Backup ASCOLLATION: Latin1_General_CI_AS ASCONFIGDIR: Config ASDATADIR: Data ASDOMAINGROUP: ASLOGDIR: Log ASPROVIDERMSOLAP: 1 ASSVCACCOUNT: ASSVCPASSWORD: ***** ASSVCSTARTUPTYPE: Automatic ASSYSADMINACCOUNTS: ASTEMPDIR: Temp BROWSERSVCSTARTUPTYPE: Disabled CONFIGURATIONFILE: C:\\Program Files (x86)\\Microsoft SQL Server\\100\\Setup Bootstrap\\Log\\20121023_130205\\ConfigurationFile.ini CUSOURCE: ENABLERANU: False ENU: True ERRORREPORTING: False FARMACCOUNT: FARMADMINPORT: 0 FARMPASSWORD: ***** FEATURES: SSMS,ADV_SSMS FILESTREAMLEVEL: 0 FILESTREAMSHARENAME: FTSVCACCOUNT: FTSVCPASSWORD: ***** HELP: False IACCEPTSQLSERVERLICENSETERMS: False INDICATEPROGRESS: False INSTALLSHAREDDIR: C:\\Program Files (x86)\\Microsoft SQL Server\\ INSTALLSHAREDWOWDIR: C:\\Program Files (x86)\\Microsoft SQL Server\\ INSTALLSQLDATADIR: INSTANCEDIR: C:\\Program Files (x86)\\Microsoft SQL Server\\ INSTANCEID: INSTANCENAME: ISSVCACCOUNT: NT AUTHORITY\\NetworkService ISSVCPASSWORD: ***** ISSVCSTARTUPTYPE: Automatic NPENABLED: 0 PASSPHRASE: ***** PCUSOURCE: PID: ***** QUIET: False QUIETSIMPLE: False ROLE: RSINSTALLMODE: FilesOnlyMode RSSVCACCOUNT: RSSVCPASSWORD: ***** RSSVCSTARTUPTYPE: Automatic SAPWD: ***** SECURITYMODE: SQLBACKUPDIR: SQLCOLLATION: SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CI_AS SQLSVCACCOUNT: SQLSVCPASSWORD: ***** SQLSVCSTARTUPTYPE: Automatic SQLSYSADMINACCOUNTS: SQLTEMPDBDIR: SQLTEMPDBLOGDIR: SQLUSERDBDIR: SQLUSERDBLOGDIR: SQMREPORTING: False TCPENABLED: 0 UIMODE: Normal X86: True Configuration file: C:\\Program Files (x86)\\Microsoft SQL Server\\100\\Setup Bootstrap\\Log\\20121023_130205\\ConfigurationFile.iniDetailed results: Feature: Management Tools - Complete Status: Failed: see logs for details MSI status: Passed Configuration status: Passed Feature: Management Tools - Basic Status: Failed: see logs for details MSI status: Passed Configuration status: PassedRules with failures:Global rules:Scenario specific rules:Rules report file: C:\\Program Files (x86)\\Microsoft SQL Server\\100\\Setup Bootstrap\\Log\\20121023_130205\\SystemConfigurationCheck_Report.htm 153554b96e